MLA citation is simply a way of documenting sources and listing the references used for the research paper. It is important to learn the basics of citing references like the MLA citation primarily to add weight to your paper and a number of other advantages.
MLA stands for the Modern Language Association style of citation, which is commonly used in the liberal arts and humanities. MLA citing is commonly used by both students and teachers in secondary and undergraduate school. For more details on MLA style citation, you may consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
MLA citation style uses a basic author-page format for making in-text citations. The last name of the author is your reference point in searching the actual material in the works cited list, where it indicates the complete details of the source. The page numbers indicate which part of the source was cited or used as reference.
From a writing style descriptive of inner turmoils (Kundera, 165-69).
From the example above, it is clear that the information above was taken from the book of Kundera particularly pages 165 to 169. To know the full details of the source, you only need to look for Kundera in the bibliography and you will get all the details you need.
Kundera, Milan. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. New York: Harper & Row, 1984. Print.
Works cited list or the bibliography is placed at the end of the essay or research paper. The list indicates the complete details of the sources that were used in the in-text citation. It is important that you understand the basics used in MLA style citation for even with the aid of MLA works cited generator, you still need to input the right details to get the right results. There are a few guidelines to help you make your MLA works cited page as enumerated in the following:
Standard book MLA citation format is the following:
Last name, First name. Title. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Date of Publication. Medium of Publication.
Shaw, Bernard. Saint Joan: A Chronicle Play in Six Scenes and an Epilogue. New York: Brentano’s, 1924. Print.
Austen, Jane, and Donald Gray. Pride and Prejudice: An Authoritative Text, Backgrounds, Reviews, and Essays in Criticism. New York: Norton, 1966. Print.
Tennyson, Alfred T. , Susan Shatto and Marion Shaw. In Memoriam. Oxford: Clarendon, 1982. Print.
Keats, John, et al. The Poetical Works and Other Writings of John Keats. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1938. Print.
Schama, Simon. A History of Britain. 2 vols. New York: Hyperion, 2000. Print.
Gibran, Kahlil. “Joy and Sorrow.” The Prophet. New York: Knopf, 1952. Print.
Gibran, Kahlil. The Prophet. New York: Knopf, 1952. Web. 12 July 2011. <http://www.energygrid.com/spirit/the-prophet/>.
For periodicals like journals, newspapers and magazines, the listing of the names of the author is basically the same with books. However, the date is enclosed in parentheses and the volume number and issue number are connected by a decimal point.
The standard format for periodicals is as follows:
Author’s Name. “Title of the Article.” Name of the Journal Volume Number.Issue Number (Date of Publication): Inclusive Page Numbers. Medium of Publication.
Gaskill, Nicholas. “What Difference Can Pragmatism Make for Literary Study?” American Literary History (2012): 374-389. Print.
Hutcheon, Linda, and Michael Hutcheon. “All Concord’s Born of Contraries: Marital Methodologies.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 14.1 (1995): 59-64. Print.
MacKay, Kelly, and Christine Vogt. “Information Technology in Everyday and Vacation Contexts.” Annals of Tourism Research 39.3 (2012): 1380-1401. Web. 27 February 2009.
In the MLA citation of newspapers, it is important that you specify the edition like “late ed.” just after the date because each edition contains unique content. Moreover, if the newspaper is for local distribution only, indicate the name of the city and state in brackets just after the name of the newspaper. For articles sourced online with no pagination, indicate with “n. page” or if pagination is discontinued, indicate the page number with a “+”.
Secter, Bob. “A Shrine to Kings of the Road.” Chicago Tribune 16 June 2007: 7. Print.
Angus, Marty. “Revolutionizing the Community Perspective.” National Inquirer [Baltimore, MD] 27 Feb. 2009: 12+. Print.
Levere, Jane. “An Anti-Obesity Campaign Takes to the Airwaves.” The New York Times 1 May 2012: n. page. Web. 20 Sept. 2012.
Loomis, Carol. “The $600 Billion Challenge.” Fortune 5 July 2010: 72-81. Print.
Katz, Harry, and Vincent Virga. “Civil War Battlefield Art.” National Geographic May 2012: n. page. Web. 5 May 2012.
In the MLA citation of online sources, it is important that the MLA works cited page includes the information that indicates the source and allows it to be easily found or retrieved. Remember that you only need to indicate the URL when your instructor or publisher tells you to.
The MLA citation format for websites is as follows:
Author’s Name. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Website. Publisher, Date of Publication. Medium of Publication. Retrieval Date <URL> (optional).
Reverse Logistics Association. “After-Sales Support.” Reverse Logistics Association.Reverse Logistics Trends, 2008. Web. 3 May 2005. <http://www.rfl.abs/learning/re_biofuels.html>.
Reverse Logistics Association. “After-Sales Support.” Reverse Logistics Association.Reverse Logistics Trends, 2008. Web. 3 May 2005.
Due to the fact that are no definitive standards set for online publications, the requirements in the MLA works cited page may not be readily available so the MLA citing may vary from one reference to another. As a rule, online sources would need more details than their print counterparts to locate and retrieved the said source easily.
In-text MLA Citing is short, only the necessary detail to identify the source in the works cited list. The guidelines are briefly enumerated in the following:
Neruda clearly illustrates the motive (56-76).
The motive has been clearly illustrated (Neruda 56-76).
The poem (Tennyson, Shatto, and Shaw 54-65) illustrates this beautiful flow of language (Austen and Gray 34-43).
The language was enriched in the poem (Keats 72-86).
as was described in the History of Britain (2: 114-21).
The free verse is clearly seen (Baron 3:15-24).
as indicated in the prose (Sherman, pars. 2-3)
The primary consideration of the MLA citation within the text is to clearly indicate where the information is being borrowed, copied or used. For the bibliography, the citation format is brief, using only the necessary details, which is why you would hardly see abbreviations for pages, volumes or issue numbers. Moreover, omitting the URL simplifies the process without making it hard for readers to track the online source. The essence in being brief and concise is to be still relevant, minus the complexity of citing references. To simplify the process of MLA citing, students and teachers can always use a reliable MLA works cited generator. By utilizing modern technology, they can buy more time for learning.